In part two Chaudhuri turns to the longue durée, to the more slowly changing structural aspects of Indian Ocean trade and civilisation. Chapter six describes the seas and the skills needed to master them, covering seafaring communities and social attitudes to the sea as well as monsoons, navigation, and the risks of shipwreck. Chapter seven covers shipbuilding and design: nails versus stitching, European techniques, and Indonesian and Chinese designs. Chapter eight looks at the connections of the sea with the land, at the importance of ports and rivers and at the central Asian caravan routes that were part of the same trading networks, as well as at the role of towns and urbanisation more generally. Chapter nine describes commodities and their markets, covering the differences between high value goods and bulk commodities (important as ballast) and the unpredictability of prices. And chapter ten turns to capital and finance, pointing out differences from modern capitalism — in, for example, a lack of separation between the ownership and use of capital — but arguing that pre-modern Indian Ocean capitalism had its own logic.